jf_pratama Publish time 22-9-2009 09:16 PM

Gamelan - Warisan Dunia dari Indonesia

Post Last Edit by jf_pratama at 22-9-2009 20:53

A History of Gamelan

The First Gamelan

Among the earliest evidence of gamelan instruments is a series of stone relief carvings on the Borobudur Buddhist temple in central Java (ca. 800ad).

Borobudur shows the world's first record of a bar percussion instrument. It appears to be a gambang style "xylophone" with ten wide bars resting over a trough resonator. We have no way to tell, but the bars were most likely made of wood or metal. The instrument is shown being played with two sticks with large, presumably padded, balls on the ends (see Kunst, "Hindu Javanese Musical Instruments," fig. 21). Cymbals resembling Balinese ceng ceng kopyak used in modern processional music can be seen as well as two-headed hand drums which appear to be of both Javanese barrel shape and Balinese conical styles.

The reliefs of Borobudur and other central Javanese temples of the period, including Prambanan and Candi Sari, depict many other instruments including zithers, lutes, harps, vessel drums (gatam), and transverse flutes. Most are extinct in Indonesia today and may have never really existed on the islands, possibly carved from memory by mainland artisans. Only the bar instrument, cymbals, and drums remain. Notably absent from all reliefs of this period are gongs.

The First Gongs

Gongs first appear in the carvings of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, among temples of the Majapahit Hindu empire. These depictions show small gongs, often mounted in pairs on a stick or hanging singly from a cord in the hand and played with a padded mallet. Also evident are significant advancements in bar instruments since the time of Borobudur, including four-mallet gambang style xylophones of a type still used in Bali for cremation rites. Suspended bar gangsa and gender as well as saron with resting bars can be found. The earliest evidence of tuned acoustic resonators, bamboo tubes which amplify the sound of the bars, also appears in this period.

Notable in the east Javanese reliefs are images resembling sitar and other gourd resonated plucked string instruments like those used today in India. Many drums depicted in this period also strongly resemble Indian mridanggam and pakawaj. These instruments became extinct in Indonesia, and again may have never existed, but their presence indicates a powerful foreign cultural infusion.

Gongs most probably did not originate in Indonesia. There is no evidence of the development of bronze gongs in Indonesia before the thirteenth century. They simply appear in the record as highly refined instruments, complete with an embossed center and deep shell. Mainland Asia, however, displays a much wider variety of bronze gong styles, including shallower shells, flat faces, and a clear developmental lineage.

Ancient literature suggests that gongs may have been known and used in Indonesia as early as the ninth century. Their original use may have been as instruments of battle, a sound used to encourage soldiers as it instilled fear in their enemies. But, their absence from the earliest stone record suggests that they were either relatively uncommon until that time. Perhaps they were not an instrument of the ruling class, or had no religiously important purpose.

Majapahit is where all the primary elements of modern gamelan came together. Bronze gongs combined with Indian and southeast Asian influences and the "indigenous" music and instruments of the central Javanese cultures which built Borobudur make east Java the birthplace of gamelan as we know it today. Influence of the Majapahit was strong throughout Indonesia and the southern Philippines and reached deep into the mainland of southeast Asia.

Bali and Java Split

In the fourteenth century, people from the middle east introduced the religion of Islam and the fall of the Majapahit empire began. Those who wished to remain Hindu were exiled to Bali, where they remained relatively isolated for hundreds of years.

The gamelan we hear in Bali today is a direct, almost pure, descendant of the music of the Majapahit period. Many instruments in Bali are exactly the same as those recorded by stone carvers in east Java over six centuries ago. But, while the tools of the trade have remained similar, the music has changed and developed. Every generation of musicians in Bali puts their personal stamp on the music. An added variation here, a new section there, or another composition for a particular ritual, add up considerably over six hundred years. Changes in popular taste also had an effect.

In Java, the new Islamic Mataram empire began and music and instrumentations changed considerably. In Bali, we still find primarily homogenous ensembles of bronze, iron, bamboo, etc. But, in central Java, this diverse instrumentation was combined into a single orchestra. Also combined were the two scales, slendro and pelog, which had remained exclusive to certain ensembles and rituals in Majapahit times. While scales and even melodies may have remained the same, theories behind them were amended to create the Javanese "patet" modal system.

The Javanese Mataram empire is responsible for advancing bronze foundry techniques to produce the very large gongs which have become a staple of modern Javanese and Balinese gamelan. The village of Semarang on the north coast of central Java became the new Indonesian center for gong making, supplying instruments to most of Java, Sumatra, Bali, Borneo, and surrounding islands.

The use and purpose of gamelan music in Java was also revised by Mataram. Originally, gamelan was played in outdoor temples for religious rites, to inspire trance and to invite ancestral spirits. But, in Java religious worship was redirected to the royal courts and the old Hindu and Buddhist temples were left to decay. This change of environment gave rise to many of the aesthetic differences between Balinese and Javanese musical styles. Music in Java moved from open air temples to large roofed platforms within the royal court. Mallets were softened to allow the instruments to reverberate within the space in a more pleasing manner. Forms were also slowed down and elongated to take advantage of the new acoustics and lend austerity to the court. Music became largely a cerebral pursuit of the aristocracy and musicians became servants of the courts.

The Twentieth Century

The last hundred years has brought great changes in both Balinese and Javanese music. Older Balinese musicians speak of times when tempos were slow and variations less intense. Older Javanese musicians relate stories of now rare grand court events and lost compositions. Balinese kebyar style is a product of this century, as is the bonang imbal and kembangan playing techniques so typical of today's Javanese sound.

Gamelan music continues to change and evolve in both style and purpose. Government performing arts schools are the new patrons driving the future. Students in these institutions are required to create new music and dance, expanding the scope and popularity of gamelan both at home and around the world.

Gamelan from Java

Gamelan from Bali

Gamelan Sunda

jf_pratama Publish time 22-9-2009 09:22 PM

Gamelan, Orkestra a la Jawa

Gamelan jelas bukan musik yang asing. Popularitasnya telah merambah berbagai benua dan telah memunculkan paduan musik baru jazz-gamelan, melahirkan institusi sebagai ruang belajar dan ekspresi musik gamelan, hingga menghasilkan pemusik gamelan ternama. Pagelaran musik gamelan kini bisa dinikmati di berbagai belahan dunia, namun Yogyakarta adalah tempat yang paling tepat untuk menikmati gamelan karena di kota inilah anda bisa menikmati versi aslinya.

Gamelan yang berkembang di Yogyakarta adalah Gamelan Jawa, sebuah bentuk gamelan yang berbeda dengan Gamelan Bali ataupun Gamelan Sunda. Gamelan Jawa memiliki nada yang lebih lembut dan slow, berbeda dengan Gamelan Bali yang rancak dan Gamelan Sunda yang sangat mendayu-dayu dan didominasi suara seruling. Perbedaan itu wajar, karena Jawa memiliki pandangan hidup tersendiri yang diungkapkan dalam irama musik gamelannya.

Pandangan hidup Jawa yang diungkapkan dalam musik gamelannya adalah keselarasan kehidupan jasmani dan rohani, keselarasan dalam berbicara dan bertindak sehingga tidak memunculkan ekspresi yang meledak-ledak serta mewujudkan toleransi antar sesama. Wujud nyata dalam musiknya adalah tarikan tali rebab yang sedang, paduan seimbang bunyi kenong, saron kendang dan gambang serta suara gong pada setiap penutup irama.

Tidak ada kejelasan tentang sejarah munculnya gamelan. Perkembangan musik gamelan diperkirakan sejak kemunculan kentongan, rebab, tepukan ke mulut, gesekan pada tali atau bambu tipis hingga dikenalnya alat musik dari logam. Perkembangan selanjutnya setelah dinamai gamelan, musik ini dipakai untuk mengiringi pagelaran wayang, dan tarian. Barulah pada beberapa waktu sesudahnya berdiri sebagai musik sendiri dan dilengkapi dengan suara para sinden.

Seperangkat gamelan terdiri dari beberapa alat musik, diantaranya satu set alat musik serupa drum yang disebut kendang, rebab dan celempung, gambang, gong dan seruling bambu. Komponen utama yang menyusun alat-alat musik gamelan adalah bambu, logam, dan kayu. Masing-masing alat memiliki fungsi tersendiri dalam pagelaran musik gamelan, misalnya gong berperan menutup sebuah irama musik yang panjang dan memberi keseimbangan setelah sebelumnya musik dihiasi oleh irama gending.

Gamelan Jawa adalah musik dengan nada pentatonis. Satu permainan gamelan komplit terdiri dari dua putaran, yaitu slendro dan pelog. Slendro memiliki 5 nada per oktaf, yaitu 1 2 3 5 6 dengan perbedaan interval kecil. Pelog memiliki 7 nada per oktaf, yaitu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 dengan perbedaan interval yang besar. Komposisi musik gamelan diciptakan dengan beberapa aturan, yaitu terdiri dari beberapa putaran dan pathet, dibatasi oleh satu gongan serta melodinya diciptakan dalam unit yang terdiri dari 4 nada.

Anda bisa melihat gamelan sebagai sebuah pertunjukan musik tersendiri maupun sebagai pengiring tarian atau seni pertunjukan seperti wayang kulit dan ketoprak. Sebagai sebuah pertunjukan tersendiri, musik gamelan biasanya dipadukan dengan suara para penyanyi Jawa (penyanyi pria disebut wiraswara dan penyanyi wanita disebut waranggana). Pertunjukan musik gamelan yang digelar kini bisa merupakan gamelan klasik ataupun kontemporer. Salah satu bentuk gamelan kontemporer adalah jazz-gamelan yang merupakan paduan paduan musik bernada pentatonis dan diatonis.

Salah satu tempat di Yogyakarta dimana anda bisa melihat pertunjukan gamelan adalah Kraton Yogyakarta. Pada hari Kamis pukul 10.00 - 12.00 WIB digelar gamelan sebagai sebuah pertunjukan musik tersendiri. Hari Sabtu pada waktu yang sama digelar musik gamelan sebagai pengiring wayang kulit, sementara hari Minggu pada waktu yang sama digelar musik gamelan sebagai pengiring tari tradisional Jawa. Untuk melihat pertunjukannya, anda bisa menuju Bangsal Sri Maganti. Sementara untuk melihat perangkat gamelan tua, anda bisa menuju bangsal kraton lain yang terletak lebih ke belakang.

jf_pratama Publish time 22-9-2009 09:24 PM


Gamelan music of all kinds, in Indonesia and around the world, is supported and documented by the American Gamelan Institute, an organization devoted to publishing, recording, distributing, and making available information on all aspects of Indonesian performing arts and their international counterparts. AGI was founded in 1981 to support all those involved in the many traditions of gamelan, and to gather and share information in many forms.


kentutmanis Publish time 22-9-2009 11:55 PM

yes,its originally fr indons... how itscome to malaysia? Illegal immigrant fr indons come to peninsular malaysia bring altogether the traditn,food recipe,attire outfit etc...desperately want to be malaysians,yet indon people accusing malaysian of stealing their traditn whatsoever... indonesia is beautiful land with lot of history,but the land managed by less-educated indons thats y not too many tourist visit indonesia,if let say Mahathir lead indonesia,definitely indonesia is more richer n powerful than China... Soeharto hd done the stupid thing by borrowing money fr IMF hence bring all those indons to hell,now when they become poorer they r barking full of jealousy to richer neighbour Malaysia n Spore... Nobody respect this 200million populated country

Acong Publish time 23-9-2009 12:16 AM

dol......... camne ada org indon jika mereka bukan berasal dari tanah besar? kalu org2 batak tu, ada chance kot penghuni asal kat situ........ :lol:

temptation80 Publish time 23-9-2009 12:57 AM

layan ler indon tu ;P

fly_in_d_sky Publish time 23-9-2009 01:04 AM

pesal tepek2 benda nie?
xde makna langsung
udah2 ler pasal original dr indon
fly ada tanya kwn fly yg keje indon
benda2 cam nie selalu nyer disebbkan org indon yg duk bwh tempurung
harap2 reti gune internet tp akai pendek .......
patut benda cm nie bangga ler bukan berebut hakcipta terpelihara
ada akai gune ler bukan letak kat bontot .......
dok mencanang satu donia ngata tu indon punya
kecoh tul ..........

jebeng Publish time 23-9-2009 01:56 AM

x abis ag ker??...isu basi la..

oni313 Publish time 23-9-2009 02:33 AM

mase aku kt U,
member aku ader msuk koko kelab gamelan,

gamelan ni asalnyer muzik ahli para sufi,

tu je la yg aku dgar,
sal asal usul gamelan ni,
x braper jelas dr maner asal kedatangnnyer,

yg indon gatal nk tuntut apesal?

beautiful_faith Publish time 23-9-2009 08:24 AM


dCrook Publish time 24-9-2009 10:31 AM

bukan gamelan ni asal minang ke? lagi satu, gamelan ade gak dalam budaya orang Iban. macam mane laa alat 'jawa' ni boleh masuk hutan tebal borneo pergi ke orang iban??

mehan Publish time 24-9-2009 11:51 AM

Post Last Edit by jf_pratama at 22-9-2009 20:53

A History of Gamelan

The First Gamelan

Among the earliest evidence of gamelan instruments is a series of stone relief carvings on the Borobud ...
jf_pratama Post at 22-9-2009 21:16 http://eforum2.cari.com.my/images/common/back.gif

Please ask yourself whether anyone can get any benefit from your statement and unnecesary on-going remarks?

I believe you are not that naive and pickle-minded to focus on all these petty little things just to provoke people!!!!!

Please do something that can bring benefit to yourself and others...

Enjoin good and forbid evil....

w_md_harris Publish time 30-9-2009 03:12 PM

Gamelan bertapak kat seluruh asia tenggara ini, cuma nama nya lain , tapi asas alat muzik hampir sama... di wilayah filipina panggil kulitang, wilayah thai dan indoncina pangil pi phat dan wilayah malaysia/indonesia panggil gamelan -


Kalau tanya pada depa kat thai dan pinoy, mati2 depa akan katakan gamelan/kulintang/pi phat itu asal dari negara masing ;P

cuba ko check .. alat music pun lebih kurang jee ... bila main dalam grup bunyi cam gamelan jee .. nape tak bising2 kat thai dan filipina gak

genot Publish time 30-9-2009 05:57 PM

Indong ni bodo ka buta sejarah ka atau tau sejarah jowopahit dia ja????? Takkan nak kena elaborate sejarah Malaya dengan Burma Selatan, Kemboja n Siam kot? Dasar xpernah bercampur dengan etnik yang berbeza bahasa. Kami di Utara memang selalu jumpak dengan orang Mon (Burma selatan), Khmer (Kemboja), Chempa (Cham), n Siam (Melayu n Tai-Lao). Dah tentu budaya dia ada pengaliran n penyebaran.... Jawo jauh daripada kami, sori...

genot Publish time 30-9-2009 06:17 PM

Nah ulangan untuk kepala batu Jawo Indong...............


Empayar n Kerajaan2 yang pernah menguasai negeri kami di Utara Tanah Melayu, aku xtau pasai negeri Selatan Tanah Melayu kecuali aku tau yang Negeri Tambralingga (Ligor) pernah berkuasa sampai Temasik (Singapura) dengan nama empayar Siam semasa abad ke-13 M sebelom Parameswara bunuh Temagi n lepas tu lari lagi naik sampai tempat nama Melaka.... Logik ka Jawo nak klaim segalanya dari kami nih? BOsan btoi ngan Jowo Indong.......

1. Funan 100 AD ------------- Langkasuka (South Thailand/North Malaya) 100 AD
2. Chenla 600 AD
3. Srivijaiya/Sambhujaya 755 AD
4. Sukhothai 1200 AD
5. Sri Ayutthaya (Siam) 1300 AD
6. Kerajaan Melaka 1400 AD
7. Acheh 1600 AD (serang Kedah, masalah diplomatik)
8. Rattanakosin Era 1700 AD
9. Chakri Dynasty (Bangkok) 1800 AD
10. British intervention 1900 AD

Pi berebut benda2 bodo ni dengan orang2 Ulu nihhh, baru sepadan ngan Jowo hang...


genot Publish time 30-9-2009 06:31 PM


Ni muzik orang Mon (etnik kat selatan Burma).......... Kak pakai baju ijau tu pakaian dia nak sama macam Kebaya, nanti Jowo klaim gak noh..... Orang Mon pada zaman kuno beragama Brahman (Hindu).... Kurun ke-9 M dema punya peradaban dihancurkan orang Khmer (Kemboja).... Dema ni asalnya ada di Thailand Tengah (Bangkok), Thailand Utara, sampai Selatan Thailand. Lani masih wujud tapi dah jadi macam2 bangsa, Thai la, Burma la, Melayu n etc........

genot Publish time 1-10-2009 01:01 PM

Warisan Kemboja Pak Hang

Jangan lupa klaim segala2nya di Tanah Besar Asia Tenggara ya Penghuni Terpulau Nusajawa.... Obses sangat dengan M'sia aku xthau la pasaipa....




w_md_harris Publish time 1-10-2009 08:50 PM

17# genot

wah nice info bro.... tq

genot Publish time 1-10-2009 08:57 PM

Sejarah Gamelan Terengganu di Malaysia


Gamelan adalah himpunan alat muzik yang biasanya menonjolkan metalofon, gambang, gendang, dan gong. Orkes gamelan kebanyakan terdapat di pulau Jawa, Madura, Bali, dan Lombok di Indonesia dalam pelbagai jenis ukuran dan bentuk ensembel. Di Bali dan Lombok hari ini, dan di Jawa lewat abad ke-18, istilah gong lebih dianggap sinonim dengan gamelan.

Perkataan "gamelan" berasal daripada perkataan Jawa "gamel", bermaksud memukul ataupun tukul. Gamelan Pahang diperkenalkan ke Pahang ketika pemerintahan Sultan Ahmad Muadzam Shah. Tengku Ampuan iaitu Wan Fatimah telah meningkatkan muzik gamelan dan diikuti oleh isteri kedua Sultan iaitu Che Bedah. Puteri mereka iaitu Tengku Ampuan Mariam telah berkahwin dengan Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Syah pada 1913, dan telah membawa gamelan ke Terengganu.

Pada tahun 1914,apabila Sultan Ahmad Mangkat, isterinya Cik Zubedah telah berangkat ke Terengganu untuk tinggal bersama puterinya, Tengku Ampuan Mariam di istana. Tengku Ampuan Mariam amat meminati gamelan dan dengan itu pada 1915, set gamelan di bawah jagaanya di Pahang telah dibawa ke Istana Maziah Terengganu. dan melatih pemuda-pemudi Terengganu untuk bermain/menari gamelan.

Pada 1920, selepas kemahkotaan Sultan Sulaiman, usaha dipergiatkan dengan membawa bekas penari Pahang, Yang Khoja dan Cik Meriam untuk melatih penari Terengganu dan dinaungi oleh Tengku Ampuan Mariam sendiri.

Demikian pula, En, Wan Mohd, En.Wan Ahmad & En.Ahin, bekas pemain muzik Pahang bersama melatih kumpulan Terenganu yang dikelolakan oleh Sultan Sulaiman. Sehingga 1936, Sultan dan permaisuri berjaya memiliki set sendiri. Berbagai-bagai lagu dan tarian dicipta termasuk lambang sari, geliung, ketam renjong, togok, gagak seteru, lancang kuning dan sebagainya. Tengku Ampuan Mariam telah menulis sebuah manuskrip mengenai tarian sementara Sultan Sulaiman telah bertanggungjawab menukarkan nama "Joget Pahang" kepada "Joget Gamelan Terengganu".

Bagaimanapun gamelan Terengganu mengalami kejatuhan pada zaman penaklukan Jepun,1941 dan kemangkatan Sultan Sulaiman,1942. Tengku Mariam berpindah ke Istana Kolam dengan membawa set gamelan bersama 2 orang bekas penarinya, Cik Adnan Abd. Set gamelan telah dikembalikan ke Pahang, 1973 setelah berlakunya tawar-menawar yang tidak menyenangkan antara kerajaan Pahang dan kerajaan Terengganu. Set Gamelan tersebut telah dianugerahkan kepada Muzium Pahang di Pekan dan dipamerkan.

Alatan Gamelan

Muzik gamelan biasanya dimainkan dalam majlis formal dan tidak formal di istana dan untuk mengiringi joget Pahang. Pemuzik gamelan terdiri daripada lelaki seramai sembilan orang dan penarinya adalah wanita seramai enam orang. Alatan muzik yang digunakan ialah Gong Agong, Gong Sawokan, Gendang Ibu, Gendang Anak, Saron Pekin, Saron Baron I dan Saron Baron II, Gambang serta Kenong.

source article: akulelakiitu.multiply.com

genot Publish time 1-10-2009 08:58 PM

18# w_md_harris

Sesama, kena slap skit muka dia orang.... Dia orang ni sama jah macam orang Khmer, suka klaim2 sebab dengki kat orang.... Perangai buruk mereka sendiri tak mau muhasabah diri.
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