suaffiqa Publish time 16-12-2008 02:19 PM

Tolong beri penerangan

Salam semua,

Sy just nak tanya ada tak sesiapa yg boleh beri penerangan tentang istilah berikut :

[*]UTMN (Universal Transverse Mercator)[*]RSO (Rectified Skew Orthomorphic)[*]Malaysia CS (Cassini Soldner)[*]WGS84

amazed Publish time 28-12-2008 12:12 PM

Originally posted by suaffiqa at 16-12-2008 02:19 PM
Salam semua,

Sy just nak tanya ada tak sesiapa yg boleh beri penerangan tentang istilah berikut :

UTMN (Universal Transverse Mercator)RSO (Rectified Skew Orthomorphic)Malaysia CS ( ...

1. UTMN (Universal Transverse Mercator)

~~ a grid-based method of specifying locations on the surface of the Earth.
~~It is used to identify locations on the earth, but differs from the traditional method of latitude and longitude in several respects.

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)


For the Universal Transverse Mercator System, the globe is divided into sixty zones, each spanning six degrees of longitude. Each zone has its own central meridian. This projection is a specialized application of the Transverse Mercator projection. The limits of each zone are 84° N, 80° S.

Method of Projection

Each UTM zone has its own central meridian from which it spans 3 degrees west and 3 degrees east of that central meridian. The cylindrical methodology is the same as that for the Transverse projection. Note that the position of the cylinder rotates systematically around the globe. X- and y-coordinates are recorded in meters. The origin for each zone is the Equator and its central meridian.

To eliminate negative coordinates, the projection alters the coordinate values at the origin. The value given to the central meridian is the false easting, and the value assigned to the Equator is the false northing. For locations in the Northern Hemisphere, the origin is assigned a false easting of 500,000, and a false northing of 0. For locations in the Southern Hemisphere, the origin is assigned a false easting of 500,000 and a false northing of 10,000,000.


Designed for a scale error not exceeding 0.1 percent within each zone. This projection spans the globe from 84° N to 80° S. Error and distortion increase for regions that span more than one UTM zone.

Uses and Applications
United States topographic quadrangles, 1:100,000.
Large-scale topographic mapping of the Soviet Union.
Medium-scale maps of regions throughout the world.
The UTM grid.

2. RSO (Rectified Skew Orthomorphic)

~~ also known as Hotine Oblique Mercator
~~ used for the national coordinate systems of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei.

Rectified Skew Orthomorphic


The Rectified Skew Orthomorphic projection is used for the national coordinate systems of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. It is similar to the Oblique Mercator.

Method of Projection

Oblique cylindrical projection, with a line of constant scales skewed at an angle to the meridian.


Use should be limited to those areas for which the projection was developed.

Uses and Applications

The national coordinate systems of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei.

3. Malaysia CS (Cassini Soldner)

Cassini Soldner


This transverse cylindrical projection, maintains scale along the central meridian and all lines parallel to it, and is neither equal-area nor conformal. It is most suited for large scale mapping of areas with predominantly north-south in extent.

Method of Projection

A transverse cylinder is projected onto the globe conceptually, and is tangent along the central meridian. Cassini is analogous to the Equirectangular projection in the same way that the Transverse Mercator is to the Mercator projection. This projection may also be referred to as the Cassini Soldner, since ArcView actually uses the formulae based on the more accurate ellipsoidal version developed in the 19th Century.


Should be used primarily for large scale mapping of areas near the central meridian. Transverse Mercator often preferred because of difficulty measuring scale and direction on Cassini. Since the scale is constant along any straight line on the map that is parallel to the central meridian, the projection is more suitable for regions that are north-south in extent than for regions extending in other directions.

The projection is neither equal-area nor conformal, but is a compromise of both features.

Uses and Applications

Formerly used by the Ordnance Survey in Great Britain. Still used in Cyprus, Denmark, Germany, Malaysia, and former Czechoslovakia.

4. WGS84

WGS = World Geodetic System 84

~~ dating from 1984 last revised 2004 - valid up to 2010
~~ comprises a standard coordinate frame from the Earth, a stand and spheroidal reference surface and geoid
which defines the normal sea level

aku_EnSeM Publish time 4-2-2009 01:59 PM

ni mcm assignment je... :lol:

fiyass Publish time 4-2-2009 02:25 PM

zaman teknologi ni sume makin senang kan....huhu

ketotmerah Publish time 4-2-2009 05:20 PM

cari info nak siap assignment laa ni;P ;P ;P
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