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Samudra Pasai + Aceh Darussalam - The First Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia

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Post time 12-1-2011 02:52 PM | Show all posts |Read mode
Post Last Edit by jf_pratama at 18-1-2011 19:14

1. History

When the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai can not be ascertained accurately and still be a debate of the historians. However, there is confidence that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai established earlier than the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey which has become one superpower in the world civilization. If the Ottoman Dynasty began to put the power in about the year 1385 AD, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai been spreading its influence in Southeast Asia since 1297 AD.



A number of historians and researchers from Europe at the time of Dutch colonial occupation has been some time doing research to reveal the origin of the existence of one of the largest government in Aceh this earth. Some scholars and researchers from the Netherlands, including Snouck Hurgronje, JP Moquette, JL Moens, J. Poll Hushoff, GP Rouffaer, HKJ Cowan, and others, agree on the expectation that the new Sultanate of Samudera Pasai standing in the middle of the 13th century and by putting the name of Sultan Malik Al Salih as its founder (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo, 2006:50). Malik Al Salih own name is known and different writing, including Malik Ul Salih, Malik Al Saleh, Malikussaleh, Malik Al Salih, or Malik Saleh Ul.

a. The Origin of Ocean Pasai Nomination

The full names of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is "Aca Pasai Ocean", which means "Ocean of good government in the capital Pasai" (HM Zainuddin, 1961:116). Centre of government is now no longer exists but its location is estimated to be around the state Blang Malay. The name "Ocean" that is used as the name of the island is now called Sumatra, as mentioned by the Portuguese. Previously, the name of the region is the island of Perca.

While the rover is coming from China / Chinese call it by name "Chincou", which means "Island of Gold", like that known from the writings of I'tsing.Kertanegara King, leader of the famous Singasari Government, saying this area Suwarnabhumi name, which means that it is similar to what is called by the people of China, "The Island of Gold".

Sultanate of Samudera Pasai an Islamic government, which is located along the coast of northern Sumatra, more or less around the city of Lhokseumawe, North Aceh today. Written records that had been believed by historians to trace the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malay historiography is a three-book saga that King Pasai, Malay History, and thesaga of King Bakoy. Hikayat Raja Pasai give a big influence in efforts to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, although nuances of myth is still a problem in interpreting the truth.

About the name "Ocean" and "Pasai", appeared a number of opinions that try to parse the origins of the use of the name. One is as set forth by European scholars, JL Moens, who says that the word "Pasai" comes from the term "Persian". According to Moens, those traders who came from Persia to say the word "Pasai" with the text "Pa'Se." Moens analysis can be accepted, with a note that since the 7th century AD the merchants who came from Persia has arrived and stopped in an area that later became the place of establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (MD Mansoer, 1963:59).

Opinion Moens received support from several people, including Prof. Gabriel Ferrand, in his work entitled L'Empire (1922), also in the book The Golden Khersonese (1961), written by Assoc. Paul Wheatley. Both work in leveraging data-data on the evidence of the rover from the Middle East to travel to Southeast Asia. Both Gabriel and Paul Wheatley Ferrand alike agree that since the 7th century AD, major ports in Southeast Asia, including in the Malacca Strait, have been visited by people traveling and the merchants who came from West Asia. Also mentioned that in all the cities there were trade-foundation or foundation settlement, the settlement of Muslim traders who stopped and stayed there.

H. Mohammad Said, a journalist as well as writers who dedicated his life to research and publish books events in Aceh, including the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, tend to conclude that the origin of the naming muasal "Pasai" comes from Chinese merchants.According to Said, the term "Po Se" is popularly used in the mid-eighth century AD, as found in the records and reports from the China trip rover, identical and similar to the mention of the word "Pase" or "Pasai" (Said, 1963:2004-205).

There is also an opinion that says that the name "Pasai" comes from the word "tapasai" which means "the sea". The word "tapa" are frequently found in the Polynesian languages meaning "edge". The word "Sai" can be interpreted as a "sea", which is also included in the vocabulary of the Malay-Polynesian continent. The word "Pasai" is a synonym of the word "beach".Similarly, the word "ocean" which also means "not far from the sea." So, both "Ocean" or "Pasai" implies more or less the same, that "the country is situated on the sea" (Slamet Muljana, 2005:136).

Name Pasai Ocean and often was mentioned in various sources was found, both from external sources or local sources. The sources from outside the archipelago are often mentioned the existence of a region called the Ocean and Pasai such as reports or notes of the journey, the journey of Chinese origin, Arab, India, and Europe, who had stopped to Pasai Ocean region. The course notes as written by Marco Polo, Odorico, Ibn Batuta, Tome Pires, as well as news from China. While the source of the domestic one, as enshrined in the National Book Kertagama Mpu Prapanca written works within the 13th century until the 14th century AD.

Ibn Batuta, a Muslim traveler from Morocco, Morocco, for example, in a note saying that he had visited in 1345 M. Pasai Ibn Batuta, who stopped at Pasai for 15 days, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai describes as "a country that is green with a large port city and the beautiful.''Ibn Batuta tells, when I arrived in China, he saw the ship Sultan Pasai in the state. Indeed, Chinese sources said that there is a messenger Pasai routinely come to China to deliver the tribute.

Note on the Mongol Dynasty in China showed that some governments in Sumatra, including the Government of the Ocean / Pasai, had established relations with the Mongolian Government was under the command of Kubhilai Khan. Government Ocean / Pasai starting relationship with the Mongol Dynasty in 1282. Government Ocean / Pasai in touch with the great empires in Asia by the Chinese mission that returned from the South Indian Ocean with stops in Pasai. This event is regarded as the initial contact between Ocean Pasai with Chinese / Mongolian (Muhammad Gade Ismail, 1997:23).


Sultan Mausoleum of the First Marine Board Pasai

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 Author| Post time 12-1-2011 02:58 PM | Show all posts
Other information also mentions that the Sultan had sent envoys Pasai Ocean to Quilon, Western India, in 1282 AD This proves that the Sultanate of Pasai have wide relations with other governments abroad. In addition, the travel notes titled Tuhfat Al-Nazha, Ibn Batuta said, at that time Pasai have transformed the center of Islamic studies in Southeast Asia.

Logging of Portuguese origin who had settled in Malacca in the period 1512-1515, Tomi Pires, said that Pasai is the most important city in time for the whole of Sumatra, because there are no other important places on the island unless Pasai. The name of the city by some people called the Ocean and then stick with the name Ocean Pasai and became a symbol to refer to the island of Sumatra. Pasai City, according to Tomi Pires, assessed a population of not less than 20,000 people (Ismail, 1997:37).

Marco Polo reported that in 1267 AD was established the first Islamic government of the archipelago, which is none other than the Sultanate Pasai. Marco Polo visited Pasai in the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih, exactly in 1292 AD, when the government has not been long standing, but has showed the potential prosperity. Marco Polo stopped the Ocean Pasai in network journey from China to Persia. At that time, Marco Polo from Italy to participate in the delegation who visited Sumatra sepulang attend the invitation of Kublai Khan, the King of the Mongols, who also controls the territory of China.Marco Polo mentions, people in Pasai at that time are still many who have not embraced the religion (Islam), but the community of Arabs, called by the name of Marco Saraceen - have quite a lot and plays an important role in the effort to circumcise the people of Aceh. Marco Polo mentions disinggahinya areas such as "Giava Minor" or "Java Minor" (Mohammad H. Said, 1963:82-83).

Apart from written sources and records in the course of the race rover, other evidence that at least some help to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai obtained from the remains of the abandoned civilization, like ancient tombs made of granite or marble and currency- Dirham namedDeureuham or are found in Sub-Ocean, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Time of the death of Sultan Malik Al Salih, the founder of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, knowing from his own writings that appear on a headstone is found in the Blang Me, ie in 697 Hijri or 1297 AD coincided with the years. Meanwhile, when Malik Al Salih was born not found evidence that more clear.


Applicable Currency Pasai Ocean


The sources of the origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai muasal version of Western scholars who formulated the Dutch colonial era was different from what is believed to be leaders of national historians and scholars at the time when Indonesia gained its independence. In the "History of the National Seminar" held in Medan, North Sumatra, on March 17-20, 1963, and the seminar "Entry and Growth of Islam in Aceh", which was held on July 10-16, 1978 in Banda Aceh, among others was attended by Prof Hamka, Prof. A.Hasjmy, Prof. H. Atjeh Aboe Bakar, H. Mohammad Said, and MD Mansoer, has raised a different perspective in the history of the establishment of the Sultanate of effort menelisik Pasai Ocean.

Based on a number of indicators and sources of more recent, including explanations of Arab travelers on the Southeast Asia as well as two local script is found in Aceh, namely "Idhahul Fi Mamlakatil Peureula Rights" by Abu Ishaq Al Makarany and "Tawarich Kings The Government of Aceh ", the experts concluded that the national history of Islamic government Pasai Ocean has stood since the 11th century, or rather the year 433 Hijri alias of calendar year 1042 AD (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:52).

The location of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, have been also efforts to research and investigation, one of them efforts by the Office of the excavation is done Archeological Department of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia. From this research effort found that the location of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai located in the area called Pasai, which is now located in the North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

According to GP Rouffaer, one Dutch scholar who seriously investigates the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, said that the first Pasai park on the right of Pasai River, while the Ocean is located on the left side of river.However, over time, both places are collected into one place and then made the establishment of a great kingdom, that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (T. Ibrahim Alfian, 1973:21).

b. Ocean, Pasai, and the influence of Egypt

There are several different views of formulating and interpreting the origin of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. One is the notion that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is a continuation of the history of pre-Islamic kingdoms that have existed previously. In a book entitled "The collapse of the Government and the emergence of Hindu-Javanese Muslim countries in the Archipelago", Slamet Muljana wrote that Nazimuddin Al Kamil, Navy Admiral Fathimiah Dynasty in Egypt, conquered the kingdom of Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh and managed to dominate the region fertile Pasai known.Nazimuddin Al-Kamil later founded a kingdom at the mouth of the River Pasai in 1128 AD by the name of Pasai. The reason the government established the dynasty Fathimiah Pasai based on a desire to trade in the eastern coastal area of Sumatra that was very crowded.

Ambition is to soothe inflammation, Dynasty Fathimiah deploy a fleet of war in order to seize the city Kambayat in Gujarat, to open a port city in Pasai, and attacked the pepper producing area that is Right and Kampar Kampar Kiri in Minangkabau. In a military expedition to seize it in the Minangkabau region, Nazimuddin Al-Kamil died and his remains buried in Bangkinang, the Kampar River in 1128 was also the Senior (Muljana, 2005:133). In 1168, Fathimiah Dynasty, which was founded in 976 AD, was defeated by Saladin's army who profess madzhab Shafi. With the collapse of the dynasty Fathimiah, the relationship with Egypt Pasai automatically disconnected.

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 Author| Post time 12-1-2011 03:00 PM | Show all posts
In the same sources mentioned that the router Nazimuddin Al-Kamil as ruler of the Kingdom of Samudera Admiral Kafrawi Al-Kamil, but in 1204 AD Pasai power fell into the hands of Admiral of the Island We Johan Jani. Under the control of Admiral Johan Jani who is Persian-breed Indian, Pasai stronger and was transformed into the most powerful maritime nation in the Nusantara (Muljana, 2005:114).

In Egypt, there is a new dynasty to replace Fathimiah Dynasty. New Dynasty Dynasty Mamaluk is living in a time frame from 1285 to 1522. Like its predecessor, Dynasty Mamaluk also want to trade in the Pasai. In the early years of existence, Mamaluk Dynasty sent envoys to Pasai, ie, a preacher of the old Islamic learning in the holy land of Mecca known as Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad, a former scholar of the West Coast of India.

Pasai, the envoy was met with angry embarrassment that when it became a member of the armed forces Pasai. Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad managed to persuade the angry embarrassment for Moslems. Furthermore, with the help of Mamaluk Dynasty in Egypt, they founded the Kingdom of the Ocean as a counterbalance to Pasai. Angry embarrassment crowned the Sultan Government Ocean. Neither the Government nor Pasai Ocean, both located at the mouth of the River Pasai and facing toward the Strait of Malacca.

c. History Samudera Pasai in the saga

Another version of the history and development emerged from the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai which tells the tale of the existence of this government, especially in the saga of King Pasai. According to the narration found in theHikayat Raja Pasai, government, led by Sultan Malik Al Salih was first named the Ocean Kingdom. The Pasai is a new rule and accompanying the subsequent existence of the Government of the Ocean. The origin of the name of the government, there are stories that lie behind them.

In the saga of King Pasai told, the emergence of the name Kingdom of the Ocean began when angry embarrassment while walking with her pet dog named Pasai. When they arrived at a high altitude, a dog belonging hesistate Angry sudden loud barking because it met with a large red ants.Anger and embarrassment to catch the giant ants and then eat it. From here arises ilhamnya to name a new government founded under the name of the Government's Ocean original language could be interpreted as "a big red ants."


Copy First Page Masjid Pasai


While the origin of Pasai, the story of the same post, one day, angry that embarrassment when it was called the Sultan Malik Al Salih after leading the Government's Ocean, with the controller is doing at any hunting dog named Sultan who is also participating Pasai . Occurred a strange incident when Pasai released into the forest and see a deer, two different animal species together with the familiar talking. When Sultan Malik Al Salih want to catch it, the deer ran into the arms of a dog named Sultan Pasai it. In a surprise, Sultan Malik Al Salih was minded to build a state in place.

Once the land is located, by Sultan Malik Al Salih Pasai named, as the name of the dog that inspired the construction of the new state. The dog was alone and dying in the new state. As the representative of Sultan Malik Al Salih is still residing in the Kingdom of the Ocean, then dititahkanlah son named Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul to lead Pasai (Russell Jones [ed.], 1999:23).

Although quite a lot of researchers are leaning Pasai Masjid as a platform source of information to reveal the history and origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, but not least is the dubious validity. This is because the story is not a purely historical range, but many are interspersed with stories which might not have really happened, but not uncommon form of stories and myths that are difficult to accept that logic, the legitimacy of government that existed at the time it.

Cast doubt on the truth contained in the saga of King Pasai such as presented by AD Hill stated that the text of the Hikayat Raja Pasai third part was only just beginning. Similarly, Teuku Ibrahim Alfian disappointed that because of the mention of Masjid Pasai historical data, so it had to take information from other sources. In fact, never mentions that Snouck Hugronje Pasai Masjid was "a fairy story chlidren. Hugronje scathing statement it seems is a peak fatality Pasai Masjid as a source of historical information. These data show that during the literature has been seen in the pragmatic dimension through the study of historical or Filologis (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 2002:36).
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 Author| Post time 12-1-2011 03:04 PM | Show all posts
d. The existence of Pasai Ocean Journey

Before embracing Islam, the original name of Malik Al Salih was angry embarrassment or Meurah Shiloh. "Meurah" is a call to honor those who exalted rank, while the "Silo" could be perceived as glare or sparkle. Angry embarrassment is a descendant of Imam Four or tribe is often referred to Sukee Imuem Peuet, which is a reference to the four sons of Emperor / Meurah brothers who came from the Mon Khmer (Champa) who is the founder of the first governments in Aceh prior to entry and growth of Islam.

Ancestors who founded the kingdoms of the Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh is among the Emperor Syahir Po-He-La are building government Peureulak (Po-He-La) in East Aceh, Syahir Tanwi flying the flag of the Government Jeumpa (Champa) in Peusangan ( Bireuen), Syahir Poly (Pau-Ling) who uphold the banner of Indra Government Cooperation in Pidie, as well as trigger the establishment of Syahir Nuwi Indra of the Ancient Kingdom of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar.

In the saga of King Pasai told that Marah Marah berayahkan embarrassment and his mother was daughter Gadjah Sewer. Angry embarrassment to have a brother named Marah Sum. After the death of his parents, two brothers left home and began wandering life. Sum angry then became the ruler of the territory Bieruen, while angry embarrassment on the upper reaches of open land Peusangan located not far from the mouth of the River Pasai until finally it became the throne of the Kingdom of the Ocean.


Batu Nisan Angry embarrassment or Sultan Malik Al Salih


As mentioned earlier, angry embarrassment alias Sultan Malik Al Salih Islam on the blarney Mamaluk Dynasty envoys of Egypt, Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and Fakir. Angry Islamic embarrassment reaffirmed in the saga of King Pasai to provide records that the Prophet Muhammad has mentioned the name of the Government of the Ocean, and also for people in the government diislamkan by one of the companions of the Prophet, in this case is defined as the Sheikh Ismail. With the entry of this saga, it is possible that the teachings of Islam had entered the territory of Aceh shortly after the Prophet Muhammad died, which is in about the first century of Hijra, or about the 7th century or the AD-8 years. Can be expected is that Islam is brought into Aceh directly from Mecca (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:58-59).

The data on Islam in Masjid Pasai Pasai by showing that Pasai the first place that diislamkan. Apparently, such as written in the saga of King Pasai, Prophet Muhammad (Allah) did that brought Islam to the Ocean / Pasai, was in bed when face to face in the embarrassment the Anger of Allah. Prophet Muhammad was the mensyahdatkan and make angry embarrassment to read the Qur'an as much as 30 juz, which is after the Prophet spat in the mouth angry embarrassment. He also makes angry embarrassment was circumcised. Islamization through a direct role Messenger presumably indicates that the essential process of Pasai. In this process Angry hesistate to stay until the process of Islamization was named to run smoothly (Chamamah, 2002:40).

When Malik Salih Al Sultan was named as the first Government of the Ocean, the coronation ceremony conducted by Arab forces in the Al Salih Malik wore crowned with awards from the government of Mecca. This means, the coronation is in Arabic, not by way of India. This means longer, Malik Al Salih likely have converted to Islam at the time of Sultan Government crowned Ocean. After the coronation ceremony, all the warlords and the people immediately honor and worship them by calling the new sultan: "Long live Daulat Shah Alam Zilluilahi fil-natural." Mention of honorary degrees to the king is also very closely with Arab names.

In a series of similar ceremonies, were also set two Big Man, as an adviser to Sultan, which is rich and Tun Tun Sri Sri Baba Rich. Aroma Islam more so when the second man was later given the title of an effective Arab, each with the name of Sayid Ali Khiatuddin to Tun Sri Kaya and Sayid Asmayuddin to Tun Sri Baba Rich (Said, 1963:85).

Sultan Malik Al Salih was married to Princess algae Sari, descendants of Sultan Aladdin Muhammad Amin bin Abdul Kadi of Government Perlak. From this marriage, Sultan Malik Al Salih blessed with two sons, namely Muhammad and Abdullah. Later, Muhammad is believed to lead Pasai, called Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul (Sultan Malik Al Tahir), side by side with his father, who still lead the Government's hefty Ocean. The second son of Sultan Malik Al Salih, Abdullah, to opt out of a large family and Pasai Ocean Government, by establishing self-government Aru Barumun Sultanate in 1295.

Under the leadership of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Pasai experiencing the success. Ibn Batuta record times achieved a golden era Pasai the reign of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Ibn Batuta recorded that the lands in the region so fertile Pasai. Trade and business activities in the government that was sufficiently advanced, proven to have used the currency, including foreign currencies made of gold, as a means of transaction in the economic life of the people Pasai. In addition to establishing relations with countries from outside the archipelago, the trade relations with merchants from the island of Java was so good. In fact, the merchant Java gets special treatment because they have not collected the tax. Typically, those traders from Java to change the rice with the pepper.


Masjid Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul


Ibn Batuta tells, after sailing for 25 days from Barhnakar (now in the territory of Myanmar), he landed in a place that is very fertile. Ibn Batuta can not cover the taste so kagumnya Pasai centers around the city. He was so amazed to see a very beautiful city surrounded by magnificent walls. Ibn Batuta noted that he had to walk about four miles to ride from the port which he called Sahra to get to the center of town. Government center of the city is big enough and beautiful and comes with a tower-dancing made of solid timber. At the center of the city, writes Ibn Batuta, a place to stay the ruling and aristocratic government. The most important building is the Sultan Palace and Mosque (Ismail, 1997:37).

In the fence that surrounds the city, the residence of the rulers and nobles of the people covered by government outside the fence. All commercial life in the town, the newcomers from the countryside, the strangers, the craftsmen, and all other urban activities located outside the fences around the center of town. Foreign persons are often not allowed to live in a certain distance from the Palace of the Sultan, but sometimes they have to live outside the city.

If the explanation of Ibn Batuta is considered correct, it can be said that the city government center Pasai sultans who ruled in Pasai, in the middle area is a core area which is occupied by the Sultan Palace. The palace has a fence that serves as a boundary that distinguishes the Sultan Palace the market area where trade activities and other activities take place.

According to Ibn Batuta records, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is the figure of a leader who has a passion to learn the high demands of Islamic sciences.Batuta also noted that Islamic studies center that was built within the government into a discussion among scholars and government elites. Ibn Batuta even include the name of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul as one of the seven kings of the world that has tremendous advantages. The seventh king who has the uncanny ability by Ibn Batuta among others, the King of the Malay Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul dinilainya the breadth and depth of knowledge, the King of the Romans are very forgiving, King of Iraq a courteous, very friendly Raja Hindustani, the noble king of Yemen, Turkey mighty king, king of Turkistan, and wise.

Effects of Ibn Batuta the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is so deep.As king, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is a very good, generous, humble, and have noticed the poor. Although he had conquered many kingdoms, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul never be jumawa. Sultan, said Batuta, was a leader of Islamic law is put forward. "Very humble personality. He went to the mosque for Friday prayers on foot. Finished praying, Sultan and his entourage around the city for ordinary people to see the situation, "as Ibn Batuta describes the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Humility is one of the Sultan welcomed the group is shown when Ibn Batuta (Republika, May 21, 2008).
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 Author| Post time 12-1-2011 03:07 PM | Show all posts
In its golden period, and the Government Pasai Ocean appears to be a center of international trade. Government of the Islamic port was crowded with traders and merchants from different continents such as Asia, Africa, China, and Europe. The region where the Government stands and Pasai Ocean, namely in the Malacca Strait, it is a strategic business areas. At that time, the Malacca Strait is a sea trade route is often the location of the transaction and called on merchants from all corners of the earth, as from Siam (Thailand), China, India, Arabia, to Persia (Iran).


Position Pasai (Pacém) in the Map Trade in Asia


In addition to the trade center, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is also a center of religion and government emerged as the first in Indonesia to follow the teachings of Islam. The success of the Sultanate and the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean, located in Ocean Geudong, Aceh Utara, beginning with the consolidation of small government in the area Perlak, such as Jungle and Seumerlang Jreum. In the period of the 13th century to early 16th-century, Pasai is the area's leading producer of spices in the world, with pepper as one of the prime commodity. Each year, Pasai able to export pepper with a big production. Not only that, Pasai also a producer of other commodities such as silk, camphor, and gold.

Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul have two sons, namely Malikul Mansur Mahmud and Malikul. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul ultimately died because of illness, the leadership reins temporarily handed Pasai Sultan Malik Al Salih, who also led the Government of the Ocean, because the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul still a very young age. By Sultan Malik Al Salih, the two tribes had been referred to the standard figures that they may well lead the government at a later time. Malikul Mahmud handed over to Sayid Ali Baharuddin, while educated by Sayid Mansur Malikul Semayamuddin.

When the prince is growing up and felt ready to lead the government, the Sultan Malik Al Salih also stepped down from his throne, including the two governments, namely the Government and Pasai Ocean. Instead, according to the agreement, General Persons, lifted the Sultan Mahmud Malikul Pasai, while the Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean Kingdom. However, the harmony of the sultan's brother and sister did not last long due to the feud between them. The cause is the act of Sultan Mansur who was fond of one of his wife of Sultan Mahmud's brother is none other than his own. In the end, Sultan Mansur was arrested and expelled from the kingdom until later died in transit. Be Malikul Sultan Mahmud dominated government throne Pasai Ocean and the government to digabungkanlah became the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

Since 1346, the leadership of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malikul under the regime of Sultan Mahmud was succeeded by his son named Ahmad Permadala Permala. Once crowned as the ruler of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, he was awarded honorary degrees by the name of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir. In Hikayat Raja told Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir endowed five children, three of them boys while the rest were two girls. Three sons of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir each named Tun Beraim father, Tun Abdul Jalil, and the Tun Abdul Fadil. While her two daughters are named Tun and Tun Takiah Medam Bitter Virgin.

Had a really embarrassing thing happened on the way the leadership of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, which in turn is closely linked to the image as a bad leader. According to the Hikayat Raja Pasai, The Sultan was put doted on his own two daughters, namely Tun Tun Takiah field and Bitter Virgin.Extreme attitudes of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir is of course raises the wrath of many parties, including Tun Beraim Father who is none other than the eldest son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir.

Tun Beraim Father dear life to protect his sister from the savagery of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir by running them for safekeeping in a place. Feel opposed by his own son, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir get mad and then ordered the guards to kill Tun Beraim Father. Prince should be the crown prince was eventually killed after eating the poison given the messenger of the father (Jones [ed.], 1999:35-56). Not long after, the sister of Father Tun Beraim soon followed his brother to take the same poison.

Terrorism Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir not stop there. The Sultan returned berulah rude when I heard the news that there was a princess of the Majapahit Kingdom, Radin Galuh clang, the two fell in love with the son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, namely Tun Abdul Jalil. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir feel offended because he himself is also put at the heart of the beautiful daughter of the King of Majapahit. And then, as enshrined in thesaga of King Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir again mandated the lives of his men to finish Tun Abdul Jalil, and when the plan is successful, the bodies of Tun Abdul Jalil sunk into the sea. Meanwhile, because love is not unbearable, Radin Galuh clink together Pasai determined to go to the controller to meet Tun Abdul Jalil.

Arriving at Pasai, the delegation of Majapahit was to hear that clink Galuh sweethearts Radin is dead, killed by his own father. The Princess is not the power of rage and then sink yourself into the sea in which the remains were buried Tun Abdul Jalil earlier. The remaining guards who accompanied the delegation Radin Galuh clink right back into Java and report to the King of Majapahit about these tragic events.

The King of course heard the anger and outrage of his daughter's death was Sultan Pasai, and then immediately ordered the army to prepare to attack Majapahit Pasai. Still time to give the game, battle fleet was superior to the kingdom of Majapahit and succeeded in occupying Pasai. Because of the desperate, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir escape to a place called suspect, which is located about fifteen days journey from the State Pasai.

Meanwhile, after a resounding victory by conquering Pasai, the team began preparing for war Majapahit back to Java after taking the spoils and prisoners of war from Pasai. On the way to Java, the Majapahit soldiers first camp stop at Palembang and Jambi to conquer the land, thus bringing more items to loot. Such is the story of the conquest of the kingdom of Majapahit to Pasai as told in the book saga of King Pasai (Jones [ed.], 1999:57-65).

In the genealogy of the rulers of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai lead, there was a female sultan was enthroned in the great state. Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah) Malikul Zahir reigning from 1420 to 1428, or about eight years.Sultanah Nahrasiyah has named adviser to the title of Emperor Ariya Bakooy Bakooy Ahmad Permala. Ariya Bakooy is actually a controversial figure. It had warned people not to marry his daughter scholar himself, but the warning was ditentangnya. In fact, Ariya Bakooy and even kill the 40 scholars. Ariya Bakooy finally fell to the title of Malik Musthofa Pocut Cindan Node Alam, who is none other than her husband Sultanah Nahrasiyah, with the help of Sultan Mahmud Syah Johan Alaiddin of the Government of Aceh Darussalam (1409-1465).

Sultanah Nahrasiyah a Muslim woman of great spirit. This is evidenced by his home décor is very special. In nisannya, Arabic translation of the letter written citation reads: "This is the tomb of the holy women who shine Dear queen, who departed his sins forgiven, Nahrasiyah, daughter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, son of Sultan Ahmad, son of Sultan Muhammad, son of Sultan Salih Mailkus. Mercy is poured on them and their sins forgiven. By the grace of God died on Monday, 17-Hijjah 832. "(Pocut Haslinda Hamid Azwar,www.modusaceh-news.com, 2009).


Tomb Complex refurbishment Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah)
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 Author| Post time 12-1-2011 03:09 PM | Show all posts
e. The remains of civilization collapse and Pasai Ocean

The success of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai begin to experience the threat of the greatest civilizations of Java at that time, from the Majapahit Empire of Gadjah Mada as the most legendary mahapatihnya. Gadjah Mada was appointed as governor in Kahuripan in the period 1319-1321 AD by the King of Majapahit who at that time occupied by Jayanegara. In 1331, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih when promoted to be led by Ratu Majapahit Tribuana Tunggadewi. When the appointment of Gadjah Mada became Mahapatih Majapahit is out with his speech called Palapa Oath, that the Gadjah Mada palapa will not enjoy the fruit before the entire archipelago under the Majapahit Kingdom power.

Gadjah Mada Mahapatih apparently little disturbed to hear the news about the greatness of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai across the sea there.Majapahit concerned about the rapid progress of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Therefore, Gadjah Mada then prepare the plan of attack to conquer the ocean Pasai Majapahit. Rumors about military attacks Majapahit, which Syiwa Hindus, the Muslim government Pasai Ocean Santer heard among the people in Aceh. Expedition Pamalayu war fleet under the command of the Majapahit Kingdom, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih action began in 1350 with several phases.

Initial attack on the border of Majapahit Perlak have failed because the location is heavily guarded by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.However, Gadjah Mada University does not cancel the attack. He retreated to the sea and find the open on the east coast that is not maintained. Elephant River, Gadjah Mada landed troops and establish a fortress on the hill, which until now known as the Hill or Bukit Meutan Gadjah Mada (Muljana, 2005:140).

Furthermore, Gadjah Mada conduct the interrogation of two major attacks, that the department of marine and terrestrial field. The attack was launched on the coast by sea in Lhokseumawe and Jambu Air. While incursions by road is via Paya Gajah located between Perlak and Pedawa. Attack of the land have failed because it is blocked by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. While the attacks are done via the sea route instead to reach the palace.


The power of the Majapahit Empire territories, including the Ocean Pasai


In addition to reasons of political factors, the Ocean Pasai Majapahit attacks also triggered because of the economic interest. Commercial progress and prosperity in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Gadjah Mada had wanted to get of that success. Expansion of Majapahit in order to dominate the region has been repeatedly Pasai Ocean and the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai was still able to hold before it finally began to recede slowly over the strengthening influence of Majapahit in the Strait of Malacca.

Until about the 16th century, Ocean Pasai still able to maintain its role as a city that has commercial activities with foreign countries. The historian who shed his interest in economic development was noted that Pasai occupies a position as an international center of trade activity in the archipelago since the role of Kedah successfully rebutted (Said, 1963:125).

But then, a role previously Pasai extremely important in trade flows in Southeast Asia and the world suffered a decline with the advent of the trading town of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula (Ismail, 1997:24). Malaka city soon became the prima donna in the field of trade and began to shift the position of Pasai. Not long after Malacca was built, the city in a short time immediately flooded with immigrants, immigrants from Java.

Due to the rapid advancement of Malacca is obtained, the position and role of Pasai more and more cornered, almost all business activities become loose and eventually broke completely in the hands of Malacca since 1450.Moreover, the ambition plus the arrival of the Portuguese trade in the Malay Peninsula. The Portuguese who in 1521 managed to occupy the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (Rusdi Sufi, 2004:57)

Not only that, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai in Aceh weakened when the government established a pioneering start to a great civilization and progress. The new rule is that the Government of Aceh which was founded by Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat. Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam itself built on the ruins of the kingdoms that ever existed in Aceh at the time of pre-Islamic, like the Ancient Kingdom of Indra, Indra Purwa Government, Government Indra Patra, and the Government Indrapura. In 1524, the Government of Aceh under the leadership of Sultan Ali Shah attacked the Sultanate Mughayat Pasai Ocean. Consequently, the greatness of Government prestige Ocean Pasai more completely overcast before the collapse. Since then, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai under the control of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam.

Traces of the civilization heritage of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai found, in 1913 and 1915 by a Dutch scientist named JJ de Vink, who took the initiative to conduct an inventory of the former omission Pasai Ocean. Then, in 1937 was done in a cemetery restoration efforts sultans Pasai Ocean by the Dutch colonial government. Then, in 1972, 1973, and in 1976 the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai relics found in the Ocean Geudong district, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, has diinventarisasi by the Director General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.

Recent developments, in the year 2009 has been found several relics related to the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. In March 2009, the Islamic Cultural History Research Team informed us that they have discovered the tomb of Al Wazir Al Afdal, who served as Prime Minister of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Grave is located in Teupin Ara, Ocean District, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

Al Wazir Al Afdhal known to have served as prime minister during the reign of the last regime Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zain al Abidin is also often known by the name of Sultan Zainal Abidin, who ruled for two terms, namely in the period 1477-1500 and 1513-1524 . From the findings obtained evidence that Al Wazir Al Afdal Zulkaedah died on 7 months of 1518 in 923 H or M. In the same year, Sultan Zainal Abidin also died. At the cemetery headstone Al Wazir Al Afdal, there are poems that describe kezuhudan that the world is transient, just like a nest of spiders knit. The same poem was written on the grave of Sultan Malik Al Salih who expressed the sinking of the Ocean civilization Pasai (www.indowarta.com, March 25, 2009).

On the occasion of Meanwhile, the Islamic Cultural History of the Research Team also claimed to have found a stamp or mark the estimated age of 683 years. Stamp of the government that is predicted to belong Malikul Sultan Muhammad Zahir, the second sultan Pasai Ocean, was found not far from the tomb of Abdullah bin Muhammad, in the village of Kuta Krueng, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Abdullah bin Muhammad (died 816 H/1414 M) itself is one of the descendants of the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustanshir Billah, who holds Shadr Al Akabir (leader of the speaker) in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai at that time.
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 Author| Post time 12-1-2011 03:14 PM | Show all posts
Seals are found to have broken at the handle portion measuring 2 × 1 cm, and apparently made from a type of animal horns. From finding a location in Kuta FORUM, estimated mark was used until the reign of the last leader of Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zainal Abidin (www.acehlong.com, March 17, 2009).

Then, in June 2009, the Foundation dedicated team of researchers from Nurul Islam (YWNI) Lhokseumawe announced that they had found the tomb is believed to be the last place persemayaman Kanayan King, a warlord in the reign of Sultan Zain Al-Abidin. Tomb of King Kanayan found in the village of Meunasah Ujoung Blang Me, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Based on the research, it is known that King Kanayan died on Friday, December 3 Sha'ban 872 H or 1468 AD. Thus, King Kanayan have lived during the reign of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai some regimes, and died at the time of Sultan Zainal Abidin.

Besides the tomb of King Kanayan, also found a number of other tombs. In fact, the research team predict there are other tie-tie disappear into the ground at the tomb complex is situated not far from the east bank of the River Pasai it. The new tombs were found is not listed in the inventory of the historical site of Culture (www.waspadaonline.com, June 20, 2009).

Finally, in August 2009, the Research Institute of Islamic History (LePSI) Lhokseumawe revealed that they are reviewing the manuscript letter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, died in 923 Hijri or 1518 AD. The letter was addressed to Captain Moran representatives acting on behalf of the King of Portugal in India. Photographic copies can be seen at the Museum Negeri Aceh, while the original manuscript held in Lisbon, Portugal.

The script provides a lot of historical information about the happenings Pasai Ocean in the early 16th century, especially the last condition that caused the first Islamic kingdom in Southeast Asia, having managed to master the Portuguese of Malacca in 1511 AD. Scripts Arabic letters also indicate the names of some state or government who have a close relationship with the Ocean Pasai so we can know the original spelling of the names of states or governments, among others Nergeri Fariyaman (Pariaman) and Mulaqat (Malacca) (www.waspadaonline. com, August 21, 2009).

2. Genealogy of the Kings

Here the names of the sultan / Sultanah known ever to lead the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai:

   1. Sultan Malik al-Salih (1267-1297)
   2. Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul
   3. Sultan Mahmud Malikul
   4. Sultan Mansur Malikul
   5. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383)
   6. Zain Al-Abidin Sultan Malik Az-Zahir (1383-1405)
   7. Sultanah Nahrasiyah or Sultanah Nahrisyyah (1420-1428)
   8. Sultan Sallah Ad-Din (1402)
   9. Sultan Abu Zaid Malik Az-Zahir 1455)
  10. Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir (1455-1477)
  11. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1477-1500)
  12. Sultan Abdullah Malik Az-Zahir (1501-1513)
  13. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1513-1524)


Genealogy Sultan / Sultanah Sultanate Masjid Ocean Pasai According Pasai.


Sultan Malik Al Salih lead the Sultanate of Samudera, while his son, Sultan Muhammad Zahir is the ruler of the Sultanate of Malikul Pasai. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul died, the government of the Sultanate of Pasai held by Sultan Malik Al Salih for a while while waiting for the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, namely Malikul and Malikul Mansur Mahmud, was growing up. After the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is considered able to be a leader, Sultan Malik Al Salih resigned from the sultan of the government he leads is.

Furthermore, Sultan Malik Al Salih handed control of the government to the tribes, each of the Sultanate of Pasai Malikul Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Ocean to Malikul. The time period of the reign of the third sultan, that Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Malikul Sultan Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Malikul, deliberately not mentioned because there are some irregularities concerning this matter, including those listed in the saga of King Pasai.

Kesimpang-siuran the period of the reign of each sultan / Sultanah the obstacle, and because of that century years are included in the list above is an interpretation of some information that was found. Similarly, the mention of the name or title of each sultan / Sultanah that we found so many versions. In addition, incomplete information about anyone sultan / Sultanah who ruled the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai a massage and runtut also cause other problems because of not necessarily what is written in the genealogy of the rulers who had recorded all the reign in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.
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 Author| Post time 12-1-2011 03:16 PM | Show all posts
3. Regional Power

In the century to the 14th century, the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai already very famous and influential and has a vast territory. The powerful fleet of war is to support the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai to expand its power, both in order to dominate and occupy the territory of another state or by the mission to spread Islam. Pasai Ocean territory of the Sultanate of success lies in an area that is flanked by two large rivers in the North Coast of Aceh, namely the Peusangan and Pasai River. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai territory also includes the Ocean Geudong (Aceh Utara), Meulaboh, Bireuen, and Jungle Jreum and Seumerlang (Perlak).


Power Ocean Territory Pasai


Meanwhile, some are embracing the opinion that the territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai cover a wider area to the south, ie to the mouth of the River Jambu Ayer (Ismail, 1997:7). Clearly, the vast territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai covered along the river upstream of the upstream-derived remote Gayo Highlands, now in the administrative area of Central Aceh District, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai also successfully expanded its territory to the outside of the ground in Aceh. Some rural areas of the state administrations under the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai include Minangkabau, Palembang, Jambi, Patani, Malacca, even to their various governments on the coast of Java (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:61).

4. Governance System

The composition of the community who become citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai show-layered character. According Ayatrohaedi, the layer consists of Sultan and the government of Persons in the top layer to slave on the bottom layer (Ayatrohaedi, 1992). In the group of layers of bureaucracy looks the group of Persons, the prime minister, ministers, soldiers, officers, and other nobles of the kingdom.

The existence of those engaged in commerce, such as those who deal in, the sail, the town, masters, and others. Although the total population of Arabs who live in Pasai not by the people of India, but among the Arabs is very influential in the way of government, even though the policies of Sultan Pasai. This situation is seen since the early formation of the Sultanate of Pasai and lasts a long time until this government changed the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

In the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih as the first ruler of the Sultanate of Pasai, there are a number of Persons in the state, among other things, and Tun Tun Sri Kaya Kaya Baba. The names that clearly indicate their position, called the Great Persons. This is in accordance with the articulation of government Persons in the Malay Peninsula and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as the Rich Man (Ismail, 1997:39).

Second Person of the way the government take control of the Sultanate of Pasai, each was given the title and Sayid Sayid Ali Ghitauddin Asmayuddin, as has been mentioned before in the Islamic Anger or embarrassment Sultan Malik Al Salih. In the story illustrated clearly that Great Persons are mentioned as prime minister, one for the Sultanate of Pasai and another for the Sultanate of Samudera. Their position is very important in there place since the regime of Sultan Malik Al Salih until the era of the reign of his grandson and Malikul Malikul Mahmud Mansur.


One manuscript indicates presence Pasai


In the second grandson of Sultan Malik Al Salih was in power in their government, there is a dispute between them, ie when Malikul Mansur indecent acts against one of his wives Malikul Mahmud. Despicable acts knowing that his brother, Sultan Mahmud had Malikul speech that if he does not respect Asmayuddin Sayid, who is an advisor in the Sultanate of Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean, Malikul Sultan Mahmud would have killed his own brother for acts of contempt are not forgiven. This fragment is sufficient to prove that how strong the effect of the Persons of the wheels of government take control, even to the level of personal and psychological affect Sultan.

In the next era of leadership, which under the regime of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383), the government of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai controlled by four prime ministers, each of which called Tulus Great Tailor Sukara, Baba Mentuha, Solomon Dendang Water and Tun Shah Alam City (Jones [ed.], 1999:36). Still the same as in previous times, the fourth prime minister of the exercise of its functions as an adviser to the Sultan and influenced government policy even though the final decision still remains in the hands of Sultan Pasai Ocean. Social and political life of citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is colored by cultural and religious elements of Islam. His administration is a theocracy (based on the teachings of Islam), and most people embrace Islam.

(Iswara NR/Ker/01/10-2009)
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Post time 13-1-2011 12:39 PM | Show all posts
panjang sangat la...malas nak baca..
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Post time 13-1-2011 01:34 PM | Show all posts
1st kerajaan was "Pasai"... belum "Samudra" lagi.. then, baru "Samudra Pasai".. tu pun lepas melaka jatuh
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Post time 13-1-2011 01:39 PM | Show all posts
Pasai kalah main teka teki dengan negeri Beringin Rendang. - Nujum Pak Belalang.
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Post time 13-1-2011 01:56 PM | Show all posts


Artikel yg best, tp english nye agak pecah sikit.
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Post time 13-1-2011 02:03 PM | Show all posts
Pasai kalah main teka teki dengan negeri Beringin Rendang. - Nujum Pak Belalang.
winamp05 Post at 13-1-2011 13:39



ke situ plak...wakakakaka!!!!!!
baginda pasai pengsan....
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Post time 13-1-2011 03:58 PM | Show all posts
hahahah aku lagi rasa kelakar dengan komen2..
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Post time 13-1-2011 09:46 PM | Show all posts
rajinnya pak pratama copy n paste.
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Post time 13-1-2011 11:05 PM | Show all posts
A Good article on Samudra Pasai Kingdom ...

So,  Who is still believe and claim that Malaka is the imperium?
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Post time 14-1-2011 01:01 AM | Show all posts
Ah Chong Ah Chong tak habis habis nak provoke
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 Author| Post time 15-1-2011 01:47 PM | Show all posts
Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam

1. Sejarah

Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam memulai pemerintahannya ketika Kerajaan Samudera Pasai sedang berada di ambang keruntuhan. Samudera Pasai diserang oleh Kerajaan Majapahit hingga mengalami kemunduran pada sekitar abad ke-14, tepatnya pada 1360. Pada masa akhir riwayat kerajaan Islam pertama di nusantara itulah benih-benih Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam mulai lahir. Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dibangun di atas puing-puing kerajaan-kerajaan Hindu dan Budha yang pernah ada sebelumnya, seperti Kerajaan Indra Purba, Kerajaan Indra Purwa, Kerajaan Indra Patra, dan Kerajaan Indrapura. Dari penemuan yang dilacak berdasarkan penelitian batu-batu nisan yang berhasil ditemukan, yaitu dari batu nisan Sultan Firman Syah, salah seorang sultan yang pernah memerintah Kesultanan Aceh, didapat keterangan bahwa Kesultanan Aceh beribukota di Kutaraja (Banda Aceh). Pendiri sekaligus penguasa pertama Kesultanan Aceh adalah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil Awal 913 Hijriah atau tanggal 8 September 1507 Masehi.

Keterangan mengenai keberadaaan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam semakin terkuak dengan ditemukannya batu nisan yang ternyata adalah makam Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah. Di batu nisan pendiri Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam yang berada di Kandang XII Banda Aceh ini, disebutkan bahwa Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah meninggal dunia pada 12 Dzulhijah tahun 936 Hijriah atau pada 7 Agustus 1530. Selain itu, ditemukan juga batu nisan lain di Kota Alam, yang merupakan makam ayah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, yaitu Syamsu Syah, yang menyebutkan bahwa Syamsu Syah wafat pada 14 Muharram 737 Hijriah. Sebuah batu nisan lagi yang ditemukan di Kuta Alam adalah makam Raja Ibrahim yang kemudian diketahui bahwa ia adalah adik dari Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah.

Menurut catatan yang tergurat dalam prasasti itu, Raja Ibrahim meninggal dunia pada 21 Muharram tahun 930 Hijriah atau bertepatan dengan tanggal 30 November 1523. Raja Ibrahim merupakan tangan kanan Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang paling berani dan setia. Ibrahimlah yang memimpin serangan-serangan Aceh Darussalam terhadap Portugis, Padir, Daya, dan Samudera Pasai, hingga akhirnya Ibrahim gugur sebagai pahlawan dalam pertempuran besar itu. Tanggal-tanggal yang ditemukan di prasasti-prasasti di atas dengan sendirinya mengandung arti untuk dijadikan pegangan dalam menentukan jalannya catatan sejarah di Aceh dalam masa-masa yang dimaksud (H. Mohammad Said a, 1981:157).

Prasasti Peninggalan Kesultanan Aceh yang ditengarai sebagai Singgasana Sultan Aceh

Aceh adalah wilayah yang besar dan dihuni oleh beberapa pemerintahan besar pula. Selain Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dan Samudera Pasai, di tanah ini telah berdiri pula Kerajaan Islam Lamuri selain Kesultanan Malaka yang memiliki peradaban besar di Selat Malaka. Kemunculan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam tidak lepas dari eksistensi Kerajaan Islam Lamuri. Salah seorang sultan yang terkenal dari Kerajaan Islam Lamuri adalah Sultan Munawwar Syah. Sultan inilah yang kemudian dianggap sebagai moyangnya Sultan Aceh Darussalam yang terhebat, yakni Sultan Iskandar Muda. Pada akhir abad ke-15, dengan terjalinnya suatu hubungan baik dengan kerajaan tetangganya, maka pusat singgasana Kerajaan Lamuri dipindahkan ke Mahkota Alam, yang dalam perkembangannya menjadi Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo a, 2006:72-73).

Sejarah Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam ternyata tidak termasuk dalam sejarah Islam pada umumnya dalam keseluruhan sejarah universal. Dalam Hikayat Aceh, seperti yang dianalis Denys Lombard dalam bukunya yang berjudul “Kerajaan Aceh Zaman Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636)”, bab mengenai Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam hanyalah satu keping dari pekerjaan tatahan, satu batu dari gedung yang lebih besar, tetapi tertumpu pada tokoh satu orang, yaitu Sultan Iskandar Muda. Sultan terbesar dari Aceh ini justru bukan merupakan pemimpin dari generasi awal Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Meski siapa penulis Hikayat Aceh tidak diketahui dan tidak tersimpan pula tanggal mengenai penyusunan karyanya, namun bisa dikatakan bahwa Hikayat Aceh tersebut disusun selama masa pemerintahan Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636) dan bahwa raja itu menyuruh salah seorang pujangga istananya untuk menyusun riwayat hidupnya (Denys Lombard, 2007:43).

Mengenai asal-usul Aceh sendiri masih belum dapat dikuak dengan jelas karena, selain banyaknya versi, sedikit banyak sumber yang menjelaskan tentang riwayat Aceh masih sebatas mitos atau cerita rakyat. Masih menurut Lombard, sumber sejarah mengenai asal-usul Aceh yang berupa cerita-cerita turun-temurun tersebut sukar diperiksa kebenarannya. Mitos tentang orang Aceh, tulis Lombard, misalnya seperti yang dikisahkan oleh seorang pengelana Barat yang sempat singgah di Aceh. John Davis, nama musafir itu, mencatat bahwa orang Aceh mengganggap diri mereka keturunan dari Imael dan Hagar (Nabi Ismail dan Siti Hajar). Tiga abad kemudian, Snouck Hugronje mengungkapkan bahwa dia telah mendengar cerita tentang seorang ulama sekaligus hulubalang bernama Teungku Kutakarang (wafat pada November 1895), yang menganggap orang Aceh lahir dari percampuran dari orang Arab, Persi, dan Turki. Menurut analisis Lombard, hegemoni semacam ini sengaja diciptakan sebagai bentuk perlawanan terhadap penjajah Eropa (Lombard, 2007:62).

Dalam buku karya Rusdi Sufi dan Agus Budi Wibowo yang berjudul “Kerajaan-kerajaan Islam di Aceh” (2006), dikemukakan bahwa yang disebut Aceh ialah daerah yang sekarang dinamakan Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (sebelumnya bernama Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Aceh). Tetapi pada masa Aceh masih sebagai sebuah kerajaan/kesultanan, yang dimaksud dengan Aceh ialah yang sekarang dikenal dengan Kabupaten Aceh Besar atau dalam bahasa Aceh disebut Aceh Rayeuk. Untuk nama ini, ada juga yang menyebutkan nama Aceh Lhee Sago (Aceh Tiga Sagi). Selain itu, terdapat pula yang menggunakan Aceh Inti (Aceh Proper), atau “Aceh yang sebenarnya” karena daerah itulah yang pada mulanya menjadi inti Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dan juga letak ibukotanya, untuk menamakan Aceh.

Nama Aceh sering juga digunakan oleh orang-orang Aceh untuk menyebut ibukota kerajaannya, yakni yang bernama Bandar Aceh atau secara lengkapnya bernama Bandar Aceh Darussalam. Tentang nama Aceh belum ada suatu kepastian dari mana asal dan kapan nama Aceh itu mulai digunakan. Orang-orang asing yang pernah datang ke Aceh menyebutnya dengan nama yang berbeda-beda. Orang-orang Portugis dan Italia menyebutnya dengan nama “Achem”, “Achen”, dan “Aceh”, orang Arab menyebut “Asyi”. “Dachem”, “Dagin”, dan Dacin”, sedangkan orang Cina menyebutnya dengan nama “Atje” dan “Tashi” (Sufi & Wibowo a, 2006:73-74).

Letak Ibukota Kesultanan Aceh, Kutaraja, yang kemudian dikenal dengan Nama Bandar Aceh Darussalam

Dalam karya Rusdi Sufi dan Agus Budi Wibowo yang lain, yaitu yang terangkum dalam buku dengan judul “Ragam Sejarah Aceh” (2004), disebutkan bahwa selain sebagai penyebutan nama tempat, Aceh juga merupakan nama salah satu suku bangsa atau etnis sebagai penduduk asli yang mendiami Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Terdapat cukup banyak etnis yang bermukim di wilayah Aceh, yakni etnis Aceh, Gayo, Alas, Tamiang, Aneuk, Jamee, Kluet, Simeulue, dan Singkil. Suku-suku bangsa yang mendiami wilayah Aceh, termasuk suku bangsa Aceh, itu telah eksis semenjak Aceh masih berupa sebuah kerajaan/kesultanan (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo b, 2004:1-2).

Sementara itu, menurut penelitian K.F.H. van Langen yang termaktub dalam karya ilmiah berjudul “Susunan Pemerintahan Aceh Masa Kesultanan” (1986), dituliskan bahwa menurut cerita-cerita rakyat, penduduk asli Aceh disebut Ureueng Mante. Sejauh mana riwayat itu dapat dianggap benar dan apakah Mante itu termasuk juga dalam suku Mantra yang mendiami daerah antara Selangor dan Gunung Ophir di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu, menurut van Langen, ini adalah pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang harus dipecahkan lagi dalam studi perbandingan bahasa Melayu-Polinesia. Tetapi sejauh masalah itu belum dapat dipecahkan, maka tetaplah bisa dianggap bahwa Mante adalah penduduk asal daerah Aceh, terutama karena nama itu tidak merujuk pada penduduk asal suku-suku bangsa lain (K.F.H. van Langen, 1986:3).

a. Masuknya Kolonialisme Barat

Kedatangan bangsa Eropa, dalam hal ini Portugis selaku bangsa Eropa yang pertama kali tiba di Aceh, menjadi salah satu faktor utama runtuhnya Kerajaan Samudera Pasai, selain juga disebabkan serangan Majapahit. Pada 1508, atau kurang dari setahun setelah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah memproklamirkan berdirinya Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, armada Portugis pertama yang dipimpin Diogo Lopez de Sequeira tiba di perairan Selat Malaka. Armada de Sequeira ini terdiri dari empat buah kapal dengan perlengkapan perang. Namun, kedatangan rombongan calon penjajah asal Portugis yang pertama ini tidak membuahkan hasil yang gemilang dan terpaksa mundur akibat perlawanan dari laskar tentara Kesultanan Malaka.

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 Author| Post time 15-1-2011 01:49 PM | Show all posts
Kedatangan armada Portugis yang selanjutnya pun belum menunjukkan peningkatan yang menggembirakan. Pada Mei 1521, penguasa Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam yang pertama, Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, memimpin perlawanan dan berhasil mengalahkan armada Portugis yang dipimpin Jorge de Britto yang tewas dalam pertempuran di perairan Aceh itu. Dalam menghadapi Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dan keberanian Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, Portugis membujuk Kerajaan Pedir dan Samudera Pasai untuk mendukungnya. Setelah mengalami kekalahan dari Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, armada Portugis kemudian melarikan diri ke Kerajaan Pedir, namun pasukan Aceh Darussalam tetap mengejar dan sukses menguasai wilayah Kerajaan Pedir. Pihak Portugis bersama Sultan Ahmad, Raja Kerajaan Pedir, melarikan diri lagi dan mencari perlindungan ke Samudera Pasai. Pasukan Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah meneruskan pengejarannya dan berhasil mematahkan perlawanan Pasai pada 1524. Sejumlah besar rampasan yang berupa alat-alat perang, termasuk meriam, digunakan tentara Aceh Darussalam untuk mengusir Portugis dari bumi Aceh.

Kekalahan Portugis tersebut sangat memalukan karena pasukan Aceh Darussalam mendapat barang-barang rampasan dari alat-alat perang milik Portugis yang lebih memperkuat Aceh Darussalam karenanya (Said a, 1981:187). Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah memang dikenal sebagai sosok pemimpin yang pemberani dan penakluk yang handal. Selain berhasil mengusir Portugis serta menundukkan Kerajaan Pedir dan Samudera Pasai, Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam di bawah pimpinan Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, juga meraih kegemilangan dalam menaklukkan beberapa kerajaan lainnya di Sumatra, seperti Kerajaan Haru, Kerajaan Deli, dan Kerajaan Daya.

Beberapa catatan dari Barat, salah satunya yang ditulis oleh C.R. Boxer, mengatakan bahwa menjelang tahun 1530 armada perang Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam sudah mendapat kelengkapan perang yang cukup lengkap dan mutakhir. Bahkan, sejarawan Portugis sendiri, Fernao Loper de Costanheda, menyebut bahwa Sultan Aceh (Ali Mughayat Syah) lebih banyak memperoleh pasokan meriam dibandingkan dengan benteng Portugis di Malaka sendiri. Selain itu, menurut pejalan dari Barat lainnya, Veltman, salah satu rampasan paling berharga dari Samudera Pasai yang berhasil dibawa pulang oleh Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah adalah lonceng besar yang kemudian diberi nama “Cakra Dunia”. Lonceng bersejarah merupakan hadiah dari Laksamana Cheng Ho kepada Raja Samudera Pasai ketika panglima besar dari Kekaisaran Tiongkok itu berkunjung ke Pasai pada awal abad ke-15 (Said a, 1981:168).

Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah memerintah Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam hanya selama 10 tahun. Menurut prasasti yang ditemukan dari batu nisan Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, pemimpin pertama Aceh Darussalam ini meninggal dunia pada 12 Dzulhijah tahun 936 Hijriah atau bertepatan dengan tanggal 7 Agustus 1530 Masehi. Kendati masa pemerintahan Sultan Mughayat Syah relatif singkat, namun ia berhasil membangun kerajaan Aceh yang besar dan kokoh. Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah juga meletakkan dasar-dasar politik luar negeri Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, antara lain:

1. Mencukupi kebutu*an sendiri sehingga tidak tergantung pada pihak lain.
2. Menjalin persahabatan yang lebih erat dengan kerajaan-kerajaan Islam lain di nusantara
3. Bersikap waspada terhadap kolonialisme Barat.
4. Menerima bantuan tenaga ahli dari pihak luar.
5. Menjalankan dakwah Islam ke seluruh kawasan nusantara.

Sepeninggal Sultan Mughayat Syah, dasar-dasar kebijakan politik ini tetap dijalankan oleh sultan-sultan penggantinya. Sebagai penerus tahta Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, diangkatlah putra sulung almarhum Sultan Mughayat Syah yang bernama Salah ad-Din sebagai penguasa Aceh Darussalam yang baru. Di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Salah ad-Din, Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam menyerang Malaka pada 1537 tetapi tidak berhasil. Tahun 1539, kepemimpinan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dialihkan kepada anak bungsu Mughayat Syah, yaitu Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar atau yang sering dikenal juga dengan nama Sultan Mansur Syah. Adik dari Salah ad-Din ini perlahan-perlahan mengukuhkan kekuasaan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dengan melakukan beberapa gebrakan. Tidak lama setelah dinobatkan, pada tahun yang sama Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar menyerbu orang-orang Batak yang tinggal di pedalaman. Menurut Mendez Pinto, pengelana yang singgah di Aceh pada 1539, balatentara Kesultanan Aceh di bawah pimpinan Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar, terdiri atas laksar-laskar yang antara lain berasal dari Turki, Kambay, dan Malabar (Lombard, 2007:65-66).

Hubungan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam pada era Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar dengan kerajaan-kerajaan mancanegara tersebut memang cukup solid. Pada 1569, misalnya, Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar mengirimkan utusannya ke Istanbul untuk meminta bantuan meriam. Tidak hanya memberikan meriam beserta ahli-ahli senjata untuk dikirim ke Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, penguasa Turki juga mengirimkan pasukan perang untuk mendukung Aceh melawan Portugis. Bahkan, Sultan Turki juga memerintahkan Gubernur-Gubernur Yaman, Aden, serta Mekkah untuk membantu laskar Turki yang sedang bertolak menuju Aceh. Laksamana Turki, Kurt Oglu Hizir, diserahi memimpin ekspedisi tersebut dengan tugas khusus mengganyang musuh Aceh, mempertahankan agama Islam, dan merampas benteng-benteng kafir (Said a, 1981:199).

Penggambaran Kekuatan Militer Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam

Selain terus berteguh melawan kaum penjajah dari Barat, Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar juga melakukan penyerangan terhadap kerajaan-kerajaan lokal yang membantu Portugis. Pasukan Aceh Darussalam menyerbu Kerajaan Malaka sebanyak dua kali (tahun 1547 dan 1568), menawan Sultan Johor karena membantu Portugis, serta berhasil mengalahkan Kerajaan Haru (Sumatra Timur) pada 1564. Untuk melegalkan kekuasaan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam atas Kerajaan Haru, maka diangkatlah Abdullah, putra pertama Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar, untuk memegang kendali pemerintahan Kerajaan Haru yang sudah takluk dan menjadi bagian dari kekuasaan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Namun, berbagai peperangan besar antara Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam melawan Portugis memakan banyak korban dari kedua belah pihak yang berseteru. Dalam suatu pertempuran yang terjadi pada 16 Februari 1568, Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar kehilangan putra tercintanya, Sultan Abdullah yang memimpin bekas wilayah Kerajaan Haru.

Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar tutup usia pada 8 Jumadil Awal tahun 979 Hijriah atau 28 September 1571 Masehi. Karena putra mahkota, Abdullah, gugur dalam sebuah pertempuran melawan Portugis, maka yang diangkat untuk meneruskan tampuk tertinggi tahta Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam adalah anak kedua almarhum yang bergelar Sultan Husin Ibnu Sultan Ala`uddin Ri`ayat Syah atau yang juga sering dikenal dengan nama Ali Ri`ayat Syah. Sultan Husin Ibnu Sultan Ala`uddin Ri`ayat Syah merupakan sosok pemimpin yang pengasih dan penyayang rakyatnya. Di bidang politik serta pertahanan dan keamanan, Sultan Husin Ibnu Sultan Ala`uddin Ri`ayat Syah berusaha meneruskan perjuangan ayahandanya dalam upaya mengusir kolonialis Portugis dari bumi Aceh. Akan tetapi, pergerakan Sultan ini tidak segemilang sang ayah kendati dia sudah melalukan penyerangan ke Malaka hingga dua kali selama kurun 1573-1575. Ketahanan Sultan Husin Ibnu Sultan Ala`uddin Ri`ayat Syah semakin limbung ketika Aceh Darussalam menyerang Johor pada 1564, di mana Sultan ditangkap dan menjadi tawanan perang. Akhir pemerintahan Sultan Husin Ibnu Sultan `Ala`uddin Ri`ayat Syah, yang memimpin Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam selama 7 tahun, berakhir ketika sang Sultan wafat pada 12 Rabi`ul Awal tahun 987 Hijriyah atau bertepatan dengan tanggal 8 Juni 1578 dalam tahun Masehi.

Sepeninggal Sultan Husin Ibnu Sultan Ala`uddin Ri`ayat Syah, Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam memasuki masa-masa suram. Pengganti Sultan Ala`uddin Ri`ayat Syah dipercayakan kepada anaknya, Sultan Muda, namun pemerintahannya hanya bertahan selama 7 bulan. Karena ketika wafat Sultan Muda masih berusia belia dan belum memiliki keturunan, maka yang diangkat sebagai penggantinya adalah Sultan Sri Alam yang merupakan anak dari Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar, penguasa ke-4 Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Akan tetapi, Sultan Sri Alam, yang sebelumnya menjadi raja kecil di Pariaman (Sumatra Barat), ternyata tidak becus dalam mengelola Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Dalam waktu singkat, hanya 2 bulan memerintah, Sultan Sri Alam pun mati terbunuh.

Roda pemerintahan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam selanjutnya dijalankan oleh Sultan Zainal Abidin. Pemimpin Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam kali ini adalah cucu dari Sultan `Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Syah al-Kahar atau anak dari Sultan Abdullah, pemimpin wilayah Haru yang tewas ketika pertempuran melawan Portugis. Sama seperti penguasa sebelumnya, Sultan Zainal Abidin juga tidak mampu memimpin Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dengan baik. Bahkan, Sultan ini merupakan sosok yang bengis, kejam, dan haus darah. Sultan Zainal Abidin tidak segan-segan membunuh demi memuaskan nafsu dan ambisinya. Sultan yang memerintah dengan tangan besi ini memimpin Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam selama 10 bulan sebelum tewas pada 5 Oktober 1579 (Said a, 1981:205).

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 Author| Post time 15-1-2011 01:51 PM | Show all posts
Setelah era tirani Sultan Zainal Abidin berakhir, penerus kepemimpinan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam sempat bergeser dari garis darah yang mula-mula. Dikisahkan, pada sekitar tahun 1577 Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam menyerang Kesultanan Perak dan berhasil menewaskan pemimpin Kesultanan Perak, yakni Sultan Ahmad. Permaisuri Sultan Ahmad beserta 17 orang putra-putrinya dibawa ke Aceh sebagai bagian dari rampasan perang. Putra tertua Sultan Ahmad, bernama Mansur, dikawinkan dengan seorang putri Sultan Aceh Darussalam yang bernama Ghana. Tidak lama kemudian, Mansur ditabalkan menjadi pemimpin Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam menggantikan Sultan Zainal Abidin, dengan gelar Sultan Ala al-Din Mansur Syah, dinobatkan pada 1579. Sultan yang bukan berasal dari keturunan langsung sultan-sultan pendiri Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam ini, berasal dari etnis Melayu Perak, adalah sosok yang alim, shaleh, adil, tapi juga keras dan tegas. Pada masa kepemimpinan Sultan Mansur Syah, Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam nuansa agama Islam sangat kental dalam kehidupan masyarakatnya. Untuk mendukung kebijakan itu, Sultan Mansur Syah mendatangkan guru-guru agama dan ulama ternama dari luar negeri. Namun, kepemimpinan agamis yang diterapkan Sultan Mansur Syah ternyata tidak membuat Aceh Darussalam berhenti bergolak. Pada 12 Januari 1585, ketika rombongan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dalam perjalanan pulang dari lawatannya ke Perak, Sultan Mansur Syah terbunuh.

Gugurnya Sultan Mansur Syah membuat garis tahta Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam kembali rumit untuk menentukan siapa yang berhak menjadi pemimpin Aceh Darussalam yang selanjutnya. Atas mufakat para orang besar (tokoh-tokoh adat dan kesultanan yang berpengaruh dan dihormati), maka diputuskan bahwa yang berhak menduduki tahta Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam untuk menggantikan Sultan Mansur Syah adalah Sultan Buyong dengan gelar Sultan Ali Ri`ayat Syah Putra yang merupakan anak dari penguasa Inderapura, Sultan Munawar Syah. Namun, lagi-lagi kekuasaan pucuk pimpinan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam tidak langgeng. Sultan Ali Ri`ayat Syah Putra meninggal dunia pada 1589 dalam suatu peristiwa pembunuhan. Sebenarnya, yang akan dijadikan pemimpin Aceh Darussalam sebelumnya adalah Raja Ayim, cucu Sultan Mansur Syah, akan tetapi calon sultan muda ini juga tewas terbunuh.

Pemimpin Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam yang berikutnya adalah Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal Ibnu Sultan Firmansyah (1589-1604). Pada era Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal berkuasa, kolonialisme Eropa kian merasuki bumi nusantara dengan mulai masuknya Inggris dan Belanda. Tanggal 21 Juni 1595, armada dagang Belanda yang dipimpin de Houtman bersaudara, Cornelis dan Frederick, tiba di Aceh. Cornelis memimpin kapal “De Leeuw” sementara Frederick bertindak sebagai kapten kapal “De Leeuwin”. Pada awalnya kedatangan orang-orang Belanda disambut hangat oleh penduduk Aceh. Akan tetapi, kemunculan kaum pedagang Belanda di Aceh ternyata dianggap menimbulkan ancaman tersendiri bagi orang-orang Portugis yang sudah berada di sana sebelumnya. Portugis sendiri pada akhirnya dapat dilenyapkan dari bumi Aceh Darussalam pada 1606 berkat kegemilangan serangan yang dipimpin oleh Perkasa Alam yang kelak menjadi Sultan Aceh Darussalam dan mashyur dengan nama Sultan Iskandar Muda.

b. Masa Keemasan di Era Sultan Iskandar Muda

Ketika Houtman bersaudara beserta rombongan armada Belanda tiba di Aceh, hubungan yang terjalin antara Aceh dan Belanda berlangsung dengan kedudukan yang setara, terutama dalam hal urusan perniagaan dan diplomatik (Isa Sulaiman, eds., 2003:5). Mengenai hubungan perdagangan, de Houtman bersaudara atas nama kongsi dagang Belanda, meminta kepada Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal sebagai pemimpin Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, agar diperbolehkan membawa lada dan rempah-rempah dari Aceh. Sebagai gantinya, de Houtman berjanji akan membantu Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal untuk memukul Johor yang saat itu sedang berseteru dengan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Selama Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal memerintah selama 20 tahun, Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam terus-menerus terlibat pertikaian besar dengan Kesultanan Johor. Perselisihan antara Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal dan de Houtman mulai timbul ketika orang-orang Belanda yang berada di Aceh mulai bersikap tidak sopan. Frederick de Houtman beberapa kali mengatakan kebohongan ketika berbicara dengan Sultan Aceh Darussalam.

Salah satu tindakan dusta yang dilakukan Frederick de Houtman adalah ketika Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal menanyakan di mana letak negeri Belanda dan berapa luasnya. Frederick de Houtman lalu membuka peta bumi dan ditunjukkanlah pada Sultan bahwa negeri Belanda itu besar, meliputi hampir seluruh benua Eropa, yakni antara Moskow (Rusia) sampai dengan Venezia (Italia). Akan tetapi Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal tidak begitu saja percaya terhadap bualan Frederick de Houtman itu. Secara diam-diam, Sultan bertanya kepada orang Portugis bagaimana sebetulnya negeri Belanda itu. Orang Portugis tersebut tentu saja menjawab yang sebenarnya bahwa negeri Belanda hanya satu bangsa kecil, bahwa negeri Belanda adalah negeri yang tidak punya raja (karena pada waktu itu Belanda merupakan negara republik yang baru saja dicetuskan, yakni Bataafsche Republik.

Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal tentu saja murka karena telah diperdayai oleh orang asing yang menetap di wilayahnya. Maka kemudian Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal memerintahkan tentaranya untuk mencari, menangkap, dan kemudian memenjarakan Frederick de Houtman. Konon, lima orang anak buah kapal Frederick de Houtman dibebaskan karena bersedia masuk Islam. Rakyat Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam bertambah geram terhadap awak-awak kapal Belanda karena kelakuan mereka yang dinilai melewati batas. Ketika salah satu kapal Belanda merapat ke Pulau Malavidam yang terletak di Lautan Hindia antara Sumatra dan Srilangka, Cornelis de Houtman, saudara laki-laki Frederick, berkelakuan tidak sopan. Diceritakan, Cornelis telah memaksa istri dari seorang tokoh masyarakat di pulau itu supaya berjalan di hadapan orang-orang Belanda dalam keadaan telanjang bulat. Setelah itu, Cornelis dengan paksa merampas barang-barang perhiasan yang menempel di tubuh perempuan malang tersebut.

Kekejaman orang-orang Belanda belum berhenti. Tidak lama setelah peristiwa memalukan di Pulau Malavidam, terjadi perampasan yang dilakukan oleh para awak kapal Belanda terhadap kapal-kapal dan perahu-perahu milik nelayan Aceh. Laksamana van Caerden, pemimpin kapal Belanda itu, tidak segan-segan menyerang dan menenggelamkan kapal-kapal Aceh yang ditemuinya. Kelakuan orang-orang Belanda tersebut jelas menimbulkan ketegangan dengan pihak Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam dan kondisi ini ternyata menyulitkan pihak Belanda. Jika bermusuhan terus dengan Aceh, kerugiannya teramat besar, selain keamanan pelayaran laut, juga sumber perdagangan di bagian itu tidak dapat direbut Belanda dari Portugis.

Jalur Perdagangan Aceh pada Abad ke-17

Ketika Portugis dan Belanda berebut pengaruh di tanah Aceh, Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam justru mengalami konflik internal. Pada April 1604, anak kedua Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal, yaitu Sultan Muda, melakukan kudeta terhadap ayahnya sendiri, lalu memproklamirkan dirinya menjadi sultan dengan gelar Sultan Ali Ri`ayat Syah. Sebelumnya, Sultan Muda pernah diangkat sebagai wakil Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal, untuk memimpin Pedir yang telah berhasil ditaklukkan. Namun, karena kinerja Sultan Muda dinilai tidak memuaskan, maka kemudian ia ditarik kembali ke Aceh Darussalam untuk membantu ayahnya sekaligus mendalami pengalaman dalam mengelola pemerintahan. Kedudukan Sultan Muda di Pedir digantikan oleh saudaranya, Sultan Husin, yang sebelumnya diserahi tugas untuk mengkoordinir wilayah Pasai. Dari sinilah mulai timbul keinginan dari Sultan Muda untuk merebut tahta ayahnya, terlebih lagi sang putra mahkota, anak pertama Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal yang bernama Mahadiradja, telah gugur dalam suatu pertempuran. Tidak lama kemudian, masih di tahun 1604 itu, Sultan Ala`udin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal akhirnya menutup mata.

Pemerintahan baru di bawah komando Sultan Muda alias Sultan Ali Ri`ayat Syah ternyata menimbulkan ketidakpuasan dari beberapa pihak, termasuk dari saudaranya sendiri, yakni Sultan Husin yang berkuasa di Pedir. Rasa tidak puas atas kepemimpinan Sultan Ali Ri`ayat Syah di Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam juga ditunjukkan oleh seorang anak muda yang pemberani, bernama Darma Wangsa atau yang dikenal juga dengan panggilan kehormatan: Perkasa Alam. Karena Sultan Ali Ri`ayat Syah memandang bahwa pergerakan Perkasa Alam cukup membahayakan, maka kemudian Sultan Ali Ri`ayat Syah mengeluarkan perintah penangkapan terhadap Perkasa Alam. Namun, Perkasa Alam terlebih dulu mengetahui rencana itu dan lantas meminta perlindungan kepada Sultan Husin di Pedir.

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